Option 2 Second fermentation for fizzy booch Store the bottled kombucha at room temperature out of direct sunlight and allow it to begin a second formation for days for the kombucha to carbonate. Until you get a feel for how quickly your kombucha carbonates, it is helpful to keep it in plastic bottles; the kombucha is carbonated when the bottles feel rock solid. Refrigerate to stop fermentation and carbonation, and then consume your kombucha within a month.
If using our Quart jar, simply use one bag and only brew for minutes. When I began Standing Stone Farms, it was with a promise to my husband of thirty plus years that raising goats would be a little side hobby. Little did I know…. Read More. Site by Envision. Menu Cart. Make the tea base: Bring the water to a boil. Remove from heat and stir in the organic cane sugar to dissolve. Drop in the tea bag and allow it to steep for minutes over steeping will cause a bitter tasting kombucha.
Let the tea base cool to room temperature. You can speed up the cooling process by placing the pot in a cold-water bath. Add the starter tea: Once the tea base is room temperature, stir in the one 1 cup of starter tea. The starter tea makes the liquid acidic, which prevents unfriendly bacteria from taking up residence in the first few days of fermentation.
Cover the mouth of the jar with a coffee filter and secure with a band or string. Ferment for 7 to 10 days: Keep the jar at room temperature and out of direct sunlight. After 7 days, begin tasting the kombucha daily with a straw or by pouring a little out of the jar and into a cup. When it reaches a balance of sweetness and tartness that is pleasant to you and the PH is above 2 and below 4, the kombucha is ready to bottle. Gently lift the SCOBY out of the kombucha and check it for any unwanted mold see troubleshooting and separate the mother and baby if the SCOBY is getting too thick more than 2 inches or if you want to run two batches.
But Luter was dissatisfied. So he imposed a new kind of contract on farmers: The company would own the living hogs; the contractors would raise the pigs and be responsible for managing the hog shit and disposing of dead hogs.
The system made it impossible for small hog farmers to survive — those who could not handle thousands and thousands of pigs were driven out of business. Smithfield now kills one of every four pigs sold commercially in the United States. As Smithfield expanded, it consolidated its operations, clustering millions of fattening hogs around its slaughterhouses.
Under Luter, the company was turning into a great pollution machine: Smithfield was suddenly producing unheard-of amounts of pig shit laced with drugs and chemicals. Luter likes to tell this story: An old man and his grandson are walking in a cemetery.
Rafter 25 Ranch
They see a tombstone that reads Here Lies Charles W. Johnson, A Man who had no enemies. He had no enemies. If Luter were to set this story in Ivy Hill Cemetery in his hometown of Smithfield, it would be an object lesson in how to make enemies. Luter learned the family trade well. Dove, a focused guy of sixty-seven years, is unable to talk about corporate hog farming without becoming angry. After he got out of the Marine Corps in , he became a commercial fisherman, which he had wanted to do since he was a kid. He was successful, and his son went into business with him.
Then industrial hog farming arrived and killed the fish, and both Dove and his son got seriously ill. Dove and other activists provide the only effective oversight of corporate hog farming in the area. The industry has long made generous campaign contributions to politicians responsible for regulating hog farms.
The state has consistently failed to employ enough inspectors to ensure that hog farms are complying with environmental standards. To document violations, Dove and other activists regularly hire private planes to inspect corporate hog operations from the air. The airport Dove uses, in New Bern, North Carolina, is tiny; the plane he uses, a Cessna single-prop, looks tiny even in the tiny airport. Its cabin has four cracked yellow linoleum seats. It looks like the interior of a VW bug, but with more dials. The pilot, Joe Corby, is older than I expected him to be. We take off. We climb to 2, feet and head toward the densest concentration of hogs in the world.
The landscape at first is unsuspiciously pastoral — fields planted in corn or soybeans or cotton, tree lines staking creeks, a few unincorporated villages of prefab houses. But then we arrive at the global locus of hog farming, and the countryside turns into an immense subdivision for pigs. Hog farms that contract with Smithfield differ slightly in dimension but otherwise look identical: parallel rows of six, eight or twelve one-story hog houses, some nearly the size of a football field, containing as many as 10, hogs, and backing onto a single large lagoon.
From the air I see that the lagoons come in two shades of pink: dark or Pepto Bismol — vile, freaky colors in the middle of green farmland. Visibility is about four miles. I count the lagoons. There are That works out to at least 50, hogs per square mile. You could fly for an hour, Dove says, and all you would see is corporate hog operations, with little towns of modular homes and a few family farms pinioned amid them. Studies have shown that lagoons emit hundreds of different volatile gases into the atmosphere, including ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide.
A single lagoon releases many millions of bacteria into the air per day, some resistant to human antibiotics. Hog farms in North Carolina also emit some tons of nitrogen into the air every day as ammonia gas, much of which falls back to earth and deprives lakes and streams of oxygen, stimulating algal blooms and killing fish. People who breathe the shit-infused air suffer from bronchitis, asthma, heart palpitations, headaches, diarrhea, nosebleeds and brain damage.
In , a woman downwind from a corporate hog farm in Olivia, Minnesota, called a poison-control center and described her symptoms. Leave the area immediately. Pollution control at Smithfield consists of spraying the pig shit from the lagoons onto the fields to fertilize them.
The idea is borrowed from the past: The small hog farmers that Smithfield drove out of business used animal waste to fertilize their crops, which they then fed to the pigs. Smithfield says that this, in essence, is what it does — its crops absorb every ounce of its pig shit, making the lagoon-sprayfield system a zero-discharge, nonpolluting waste-disposal operation. The company raises so many pigs in so little space that it actually has to import the majority of their food, which contains large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.
As we fly over the hog farms, I notice that springs and streams and swamplands and lakes are everywhere. Half-perforated pipes called irrigation tiles, commonly used in modern farming, run beneath many of the fields: when they become unplugged, the tiles effectively operate as drainpipes, dumping pig waste into surrounding tributaries.
Many studies have documented the harm caused by hog-waste runoff; one showed the pig shit raising the level of nitrogen and phosphorus in a receiving river as much as sixfold. Although Smithfield may not have enough crops to absorb its pig shit, its contract farmers do plant plenty of hay. In , when the number of hogs in North Carolina began to skyrocket, so much hay was planted to deal with the fresh volumes of pig shit that the market for hay collapsed. But the hay from hog farms can be so nitrate-heavy that it sickens livestock. For a while, former governor Jim Hunt — a recipient of hogindustry campaign money — was feeding hog-farm hay to his cows.
Locals say it made the cows sick and irritable, and the animals kicked Hunt several times, seemingly in revenge. T o appreciate what this agglomeration of hog production does to the people who live near it, you have to appreciate the smell of industrial-strength pig shit. The ascending stench can nauseate pilots at 3, feet.
Boss Hog: The Dark Side of America’s Top Pork Producer
It is the best of times. We can smell the farms from the air, but while the smell is foul it is intermittent and not particularly strong. To get a really good whiff, I drive down a narrow country road of white sand and walk up to a Smithfield lagoon. At the end of the road stands a tractor and some spraying equipment. Its hooves look like high heels.
Millions of factory-farm hogs — one study puts it at ten percent — die before they make it to the killing floor. Some are taken to rendering plants, where they are propelled through meat grinders and then fed cannibalistically back to other living hogs. The borders of hog farms are littered with dead pigs in all stages of decomposition, including thousands of bleached pig bones. Locals like to say that the bears and buzzards of castern North Carolina are unusually lazy and fat. No one seems to be around.
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It is quiet except for the gigantic exhaust fans affixed to the six hog houses. I walk the few hundred yards over to it. It is covered with a thick film: its edge is a narrow beach of big black flies. Here, its odor is leaking out. I take a deep breath. Concentrated manure is my first thought, but I am fighting an impulse to vomit even as I am thinking it. We raise our own bulls and replacement heifers, replacement ewes and rams, replacement sows and most boars.
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The only supplement our ruminants receive is high quality sea salt. The salt we use contains over 50 micro minerals and has the same mineral make-up as does blood from a healthy mammal. Sheep, hog and poultry production happens in a designated and fenced cell system. Guardian Dogs keep sheep safe from predation. Hay production happens under four pivoting irrigation systems and on flooded and sub-irrigated meadows.
Biodynamic preparations and compost tea are sprayed on the land and are injected directly into the irrigation systems. Our allocated grazing tenures are on the Chilcotin Plateau and further west around Kleena Kleene, where it includes grazing right into the Alpine. The range is vast and and totals approximately thousand hectares, consisting of timbered and clear-cut pine grass grazing, large bunch grass meadows, sedge swamps and muskegs.
The range is grazed for summer months and the cattle are moved through a paddock system, or on open range according to yearly range readiness assessments, considering precipitation, residual forage, kind and age of cattle. The ranch now maintains well over km of fences on deeded and range-land, of which a large part is made up of electric fence.
Sowsalito Hotel is our pig barn. Intended for the year-round, supervised birthing of our pregnant sows, and used by the entire herd during the winter months for warmth and protection. In late October or early November, as the weather turns and the snow deepens, pigs are gathered from the pasture and live in Sowsalito Hotel for about 4 months, until they can return to pasture once again. Sowsalito has approx. The foundation of Sowsalito Hotel, as well as the holding area atour abattoir,Chilcotin Harvest, were both designed using the Korean system of Deep Litter flooring.
This is an award-winning system created by Master Cho. It isa complex and unique, self managed flooring system, which has incredible benefits to both animals and humans. The Deep Litter floor is excavated down to a depth of 4 feet. The entire floor is layeredwithlong log rails which are approx.